What are the properties of acrylic?
Let us now discuss the properties of acrylic.
• Longitudinal section (L.S.) and cross-section (C.S.): The cross-section of acrylic fiber is influenced by the spinning method, the shape of the spinneret, type and rate of coagulation. The cross-section of acrylic fiber can be round, bean when the wet spinning process is involved and dog-bone shape when dry spinning is used.
• Length: Staple or short length acrylic fibers have more market. The short length of fibers ranges from 25-150mm. While the filament or long length acrylic fibers have a translucent and crimpy appearance which adds to the bulkiness of the yarns.
• Diameter: 15-25 m is the range for the diameter of acrylic fiber however the width can be altered by the manufacturers by changing the size of holes of the spinneret.
• Tenacity: The tenacity of acrylic fiber ranges from good to moderate which ranges from 2.2-3.6 g/den while there is a small loss in strength in wet condition because the water enters the amorphous region of the polymer and breaks some Vander Waals forces.
• Elongation and elastic recovery: Good elastic recovery is exhibited by acrylic fibers. The acrylic fabrics are crushed when the fiber polymer slips over one another imparting high elasticity to the fiber.
• Density: Acrylic fibers are quite light in weight and have a density of about 1.25g/ to 1.34g/.
• Resiliency: Acrylic fibers are extremely resilient and thus are employed for making pile fabric.
• Moisture regain: Since the crystalline region in the acrylic fiber is quite high so the moisture regain is low.
• Thermal Property: Acrylic fibers are inflammable and are quite stable in heat. The fibers are highly inflammable due to the presence of weak Vander Waals forces that hold the polymers together.
• Acids: Acrylic fibers have good resistance to acids because the polymer system does not consist of any sort of chemical group that would respond on the addition of acids.
• Alkalis: These fibers are not much affected by treatment with alkalis.
• Organic Solvents: Acrylic fibers are not harmed by the use of organic solvents.
• The acrylic fibers are resistant to sunlight and do not degrade on by moth, mildew, bacteria and fungi.